Rights within education corresponds closely with the concepts of ‘acceptability’ and ‘quality’ and goes ‘beyond numerical equality and aims at promoting substantive gender equality in education. In Latin America and Asia, girls who marry before the age of 12 have a reduced likelihood of 21% of completing their secondary education. In Kenya, after a confidential helpline was set-up, over 1000 teachers were dismissed for abusing girls, mostly in poor, rural areas. According to Cook and Cusack (2010, p. 9) a gender stereotype is a generalised view or preconception about attributes or characteristics that are or ought to be possessed by, or the roles that are or should be performed by women and men. Education sets in motion a virtuous spiral: girls and women gain greater knowledge, skills, self-confidence and capabilities, improving their own life prospects—and, in turn, an educated woman provides better nutrition, health care, and education for her family. Lastly Article 16 sets out the rights of women with respects to marriage and family life. Under international law, states are not allowed to refuse access to school by expelling girls on the basis of marriage, pregnancy, or having given birth as this would constitute discrimination. For example, the Guardian reports that, Poverty is the biggest factor determining whether a girl accesses education. It should also be pointed out that child marriage is permissible by law in a number of ‘global north’ countries, notably the, Under international law, states are not allowed to refuse access to school by expelling girls on the basis of marriage, pregnancy, or having given birth as this would constitute discrimination. Girls are also more likely to be completely excluded from primary education: 15 million girls will likely never enter a classroom compared to 10 million boys. 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All rights reserved.Site designed and built by GreenNet, What statistics tell us about gender inequality in education, The right to education of women and girls in international law, Other important international human rights treaties guaranteeing the right to education of women and girls on the basis of non-discrimination and equality, The right to education of women and girls at the regional level, The right to education of women and girls at the national level, Gender stereotypes and gender stereotyping, Gender-based violence against women and girls, Child marriage and early and unintended pregnancy, Lack of inclusive and quality learning environment and inadequate and unsafe education infrastructure, including sanitation, harmful gender stereotypes and wrongful gender stereotyping, child marriage and early and unintended pregnancy, gender-based violence against women and girls, lack of inclusive and quality learning environments and inadequate and unsafe education infrastructure, including sanitation, Global figures also neglect the historical exclusion of girls and women from education, reflected in the statistic that, Despite gains in rates of girls’ enrolment in primary school there are disparities in completion rates. A number of other CEDAW provisions are also relevant to gender equality in education. The right to education, although universal, takes on specific meanings when interpreted and applied in light of shared regional customs, traditions, cultures, values, etc. In sub-Saharan Africa, gender parity exists among the richest 20% who have completed primary education but among the poorest 20%, 83 girls completed primary education for every 100 boys, dropping to 73 for lower secondary and 40 for upper secondary (UNESCO, 2016). It interprets and applies the right to education in a way that considers the specific needs and circumstances of women and girls. It is also a matter of justice. By grade six, 59 percent of girls are out of school, versus 49 percent of boys. 14). Gender stereotypes and gender stereotyping underpin or exacerbate many of the obstacles faced by women and girls in enjoying their right to education. Gender-based violence against girls, for instance, rape, domestic violence, sexual harassment and assault, corporal punishment, and harmful practices such as child marriage (see above) and female genital mutilation can keep girls out of school temporarily or indefinitely. When our friend’s child was born, he celebrated. International human rights law prohibits GBV in all settings, including in education. Such steps include administrative, legal, policy, and economic measures. If all those things are not in place, it's going to be very, very hard - very, very lonely. Many countries that demonstrate higher retention rates at the primary levels are failing to transfer these gains toward transitioning of girls to the secondary level. In Europe, the European Convention on Human Rights (1950) guarantees the right to non-discrimination in Article 14 which read with Article 2 of the Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights (1958) on the right to education, prohibits discrimination in education on the basis of sex. For example, stereotypical views that girls are domestic, homemakers, and caregivers may lead families to question the point of sending their daughters to school if they are to become wives and mothers, whilst the stereotype that men should be breadwinners means that boys are prioritised when it comes to education. 1911 8; c1911 8; 1912 4; c1912 4; Language. Experience tells us such crises lead to long-lasting impacts on gender equality and education with irrevocable consequences on the most marginalised girls. Article 11 (1) (c) provides for the right to vocational training and retraining, including apprenticeships, advanced vocational training, and recurrent training. A holistic approach is required to eliminate child marriage and pregnancy because its causes are varied and deeply entrenched. SRGBV is not confined to primary and secondary education. Over the ensuing weeks, we worked at a global level to assess the best practices used across countries and brought those practices together into a common set of guidance, which is still evolving. Similarly, our economy can grow … My name is Antoine Baldon and I am a high school social studies teacher from Louisville, Ky. This may be because governments do not have legal and policy frameworks in place to make free education a reality or they do but it is not effectively implemented, or it may not be adequately resourced, or there may be corruption which draws resources away from their intended use. SRGBV commonly affects girls on the journey to and from school, where there is little to no supervision, for example, in Japan female students have reported being sexually assaulted on public transportation. The privatisation of education poses several human rights concerns that may negatively impact girls’ education, for instance: it may encourage further divestment in public education, gradually eroding the public education system and its capacity to reach the most marginalised, particularly girls with disabilities and private providers can indirectly discriminate against girls by levying fees which have a disproportionately negative impact on girls’ participation in education, due to parental favouring of boys’ education. Below is a video explaining the importance of comprehensive sexuality education. One of the consequences of austerity and the failure of states to effectively formulate, implement, resource, and enforce free education legal and policy frameworks as per their human rights obligations is the growth of private education providers, mainly in low and middle income countries, but the phenomenon has increasingly been observed in high income countries (see for example, the UK, US, and Sweden). According to our research (forthcoming), which classifies states by level of legal commitment to gender equality in education based on the treaties they have ratified, nearly half of all states (87; 44%) have the highest possible legal commitment and the majority of states cluster around the two highest levels (out of six levels) (144; 73%). For more information on the legal status of the right to education of girls and women in specific countries, see: RTE’s background paper for the Global Education Monitoring Report’s 2017 Gender Review which includes information on how legally committed each state is to achieving the right to education of women and girls free from discrimination, UNESCO’s global database on the right to education (searching by the themes ‘non-discrimination’ and ‘gender equality’). 20). Eliminating discrimination in education is an important start, but women and girls will often continue to face discrimination upon leaving school. See our page on the privatisation of education for further information. Our teams’ knowledge of program participants and their families facilitated this quick response and focused our mentoring on four priority areas: well-being, academics at home, staying safe and healthy, and girls’ return to school. However, each describes a particular phenomenon, which in practice, often overlap. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979, CEDAW) is the only legally binding treaty at the international level focusing exclusively on women’s rights. This means that states cannot just ratify a treaty guaranteeing human rights without taking the necessary steps to make it a reality for its’ citizens. This means that states have an obligation to take deliberate, concrete, and targeted steps, according to maximum available resources, to move expeditiously and effectively towards the full realisation of the right to education. Education is a universal right. International human rights law imposes specific obligations on states to eliminate harmful gender stereotypes and wrongful gender stereotyping. The Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (2011, Istanbul Convention) identifies education as a key area in which to take measures to eliminate gender-based violence and its causes, and requires states to take: the necessary steps to include teaching material on issues such as equality between women and men, non‐stereotyped gender roles, mutual respect, non‐violent conflict resolution in interpersonal relationships, gender‐based violence against women and the right to personal integrity, adapted to the evolving capacity of learners, in formal curricula and at all levels of education. From Cairo to Beijing, offering quality and universal education to young girls promotes progress for society as a whole. Lack of free education is closely linked with government priorities reflected in fiscal policy. It is frequently called girl's education or women's education. For further reading, see Unesco and UN Women (2016) Global guidance on school-related gender-based violence. According to, ‘Child marriage’, ‘early marriage’, ‘arranged marriage’, and ‘forced marriage’ are often used interchangeably. See our legal factsheet for specific provisions of international and regional law relating to gender-based violence against women. Forced marriage is where one or both people do not consent to the marriage or consent to stay in the marriage, and pressure or abuse is used to coerce one or both parties. Sex Education (TV Series 2019– ) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more. Article 12 (2) (c) of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa is less specific and urges states to ‘promote the enrolment and retention of girls in schools and other training institutions and the organisation of programmes for women who leave school prematurely’. In sub-Saharan Africa, gender parity exists among the richest 20% who have completed primary education but among the poorest 20%, 83 girls completed primary education for every, Many countries that demonstrate higher retention rates at the primary levels are failing to transfer these gains toward transitioning of girls to the secondary level. Our existing strategies and processes to track, measure, and learn from our programs were not applicable, so we quickly designed a new RM&E framework, with a focus on efficiency and timeliness. Malala was one of the bravest girls in the world.She didn't care what other people had to say.She know what she wanted so she went for no matter what the risk was. Child marriage violates multiple human rights, including the right to education, making it a particularly egregious practice. However, most child marriages and early pregnancies occur during secondary education. In respects to the physical school environment, inadequate and unsafe infrastructure, particularly the lack of toilets, gender-segregated toilets, changing facilities, and access to safe drinking water may discourage girls from attending school. Article 2 sets out the legal and policy measures states should undertake to eliminate discrimination against women and therefore applies to the totality of rights found in CEDAW. The African Youth Charter (2006) requires states to: ‘Ensure, where applicable, that girls and young women who become pregnant or married before completing their education shall have the opportunity to continue their education’ (Article 13 (4) (h)). Women and girls face different barriers in relation to their education in different regions of the world. Since girls form roughly half the population, the importance of girls’ education can hardly be stressed enough. Interesting observations about Education > Children out of school, primary, female. At RTE we prefer the term ‘child marriage’ because ‘early’ is a relative term, whereas ‘child’ under international law refers to anyone who has not reached the age of majority, i.e., the age at which someone is considered an adult. Such violence takes multiple forms, including: ‘acts or omissions intended or likely to cause or result in death or physical, sexual, psychological or economic harm or suffering to women, threats of such acts, harassment, coercion and arbitrary deprivation of liberty’ (General Recommendation 35, para. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1996, ICCPR) has an autonomous non-discrimination clause (Article 26) which applies to ‘any field regulated and protected by public authorities.’ The Human Rights Committee has explained that: ‘when legislation is adopted by a State party, it must comply with the requirement of article 26 that its content should not be discriminatory. When read with Articles 28 and 29 on the right to education and the aims of education, respectively, there is a clear legal obligation to ensure equality and non-discrimination in education. 36 on girls’ and women’s right to education, Early Marriage and the Right to Education, Fighting for the right to education of pregnant girls in Kenya, RTE’s participation in a Geneva side-event on Education in the 2030 Agenda: leaving no one behind, Forced marriage: A brutal barrier to a child’s education, RTE joins the discussion on accountability, privatisation, and gender equality in education at CIES 2018, Unesco GEM report 2018 gender review launch, UNESCO Interactive Atlas of girls’ and women’s right to education, United Nations Girls' Education Initiative (UNGEI), Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the same conditions for access to studies and diplomas at all educational levels, in both urban and rural areas. Even when school systems reopen and countries emerge from the pandemic, there will be critical opportunities to learn from this crisis, integrate our innovations into our longer-term strategies and reenvision how we can most effectively support girls, their families, and the education systems that serve them. A Unesco brief highlights (2008, p. 1-2) that increasing the number of women teachers has a positive impact on girls’ education, because: in some conservative communities, parents will not allow their daughters to be taught by a male teacher, the presence of women in schools can impact positively on girls’ retention in school and on their achievement, at the school policy level, women teachers may act as advocates for girls, representing their perspectives and needs, and promoting more girl-friendly learning, women teachers provide new and different role models for girls, breaking down harmful gender stereotypes. This includes legal and policy measures related to the implementation of the right to education on a non-discriminatory basis. Education has a profound effect on girls’ and women’s ability to claim other rights and achieve status in society, such as economic independence and political representation.As the following examples demonstrate, having an education can make an enormous difference to a woman’s In 2013 in Nigeria, for example, over 90% of adolescents from rich households, whether urban or rural, boy or girl, were likely to complete lower secondary education whereas only 3% of poor rural young women completed lower secondary school, compared with 17% of poor rural young men (, At this point it may be useful to refer to our page, To summarise, all provisions related to non-discrimination carry immediate obligations and are considered a minimum core obligation, which means states must take immediate action as a matter of priority. 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