economic and social consequences of the chernobyl accident

The State Union-Republic programme of urgent measures to deal with the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant provides for further improvement of the entire health care system in the areas contaminated by radionuclides. Little centres of ancient popular culture – crafts, folklore – have also been preserved, particularly in rural areas, and there are also popular museums (Vetka in the Byelorussian SSR), which need to be treated with the greatest possible care. Under the State programme of work for 1990-1992 a combination of measures are to be carried out which will permit rational and safe use to be made of the agricultural and forest land in the areas where the population will live. The cost of the clean-up, including the provision of housing and other resources for evacuees, eventually ran into billions of rubles, burdening an already shaky economy. Various privileges and benefits were introduced for these people, including cash benefits and free meals for children at schools and pre-school institutions. The supply of animal protein has declined. In 1986 imported equipment was supplied mainly for the purposes of medical assistance to people suffering from acute radiation sickness. Their implemen- tation on more than three billion hectares of agricultural land has made it possible to minimize the amount of products with radionuclide activity concentrations above the action levels in all … In just the first year after the accident, 144,000 hectares of farm land were taken out о use, forestry work was stopped on an area of 492,000 hectares, and many The international community was involved from the early days in the assessments and the practical efforts to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The long period of discharge of radionuclides from the damaged active zone of the reactor and the changing weather conditions (wind direction, precipitation) during that time in the European part of the country resulted in an extremely complex picture of radioactive contamination of a number of regions, and an uneven pattern of contamination both by area (spottiness) and by types of radionuclides. The prompt introduction of emergency standards and implementation of a range of protective measures made it possible to reduce the total radiation doses received by the population by a factor of 2.5 compared with the doses predicted, and also to reduce the dose of internal radiation by a factor of 2-4. Measures are being taken to reduce the caesium-137 content of milk below the established temporary limits. At the same time there exist significant differences in the assessment of … areas contaminated by the accident and have to deal with its environmental, health, social and economic consequences. Study of biological factors and remote consequences of radioactive effects on the population and development of measures to reduce the negative impact of these effects (radiation medicine). The Supreme Soviet of the USSR has appealed to parliamentarians in all countries and to international organizations to provide assistance in dealing with the problems arising from the Chernobyl disaster. Shown that depressed and stress state due to human perception of threat to the health … Theappropriate international organizations could act as intermediaries inarranging for the Centre to be equipped with modern scientific apparatus. The total expenditure also included money contributed voluntarily by individuals and organizations to the assistance fund for dealing with the after-effects of the Chernobyl disaster in the amount of 532 million roubles. condition, economic and social development of rural settlements Source : Chernobyl consequences: contamination of land, food products and countermeasures in Belarus – I. Bogdevitch Countermeasures during the long term period after accident 3/8 In the period since the Chernobyl disaster, the country’s scientific organizations have carried out a wide range of scientific research on problems connected with the elimination of its after-effects. The expenditure in question has been financed mainly from the State budget. An important role in finalizing this plan can be played by the international organizations. Work is now continuing in the Soviet Union on a plan that would take into account the effects on man of various harmful factors, whether or not due to radiation. July 24, 1990 July 24, 1990 The following report was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It is planned to equip those centres and boards with modern apparatus for diagnosis and treatment. Priority is being given to training and retraining medical staff for health centres caring for victims of the accident. According to Ukrainian figures, the number of people designated as permanently disabled by the Chernobyl accident (and their children) increased from 200 in 1991 to 64 500 in 1997 and 91 219 in 2001. According to data from clinical tests, the diseases most commonly found in children are respiratory diseases, chronic infections of the tonsils and digestive organs and disorders of the nervous system, cases of adenoids and dental caries. Considerable radiation exposures to the population were recorded particularly in the areas of present-day … This programme was approved by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on 25 April 1990. The Chernobyl accident and the measures taken to deal with its consequences have cost the Soviet Union – and later Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine – hundreds of billions of dollars, but economic losses were also incurred by other countries, for instance in Scandinavia. Chernobyl - Catastrophe and Consequences. In the light of changing radiation conditions, the USSR Ministry of Health set the following time-limited radiation dose levels (internal and external) for the population: 10 rem for the first year after the accident, 3 rem for the second, 2.5 rem for the third and 2.5 rem for the fourth. Decrees have been adopted by the Government fixing the procedure and conditions for the payment of financial compensation to certain groups of the population for the property they have lost, and also for the payment of expenses connected with moving to a new place of residence. "Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident", which was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations, is being circulated at the request of the Resident Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist … Firstly, the accident prompted nuclear energy policy to arise as a significant public issue. In addition, people generally have little knowledge about radioactivity and radiation and are not prepared to tackle a contamination event. INTRODUCTION A day before the accident in Chernobyl, Yugoslavia was the country with nuclear energy programme, one nuclear power plant and strong affiliation towards nuclear … A national commission on radiation protection has been drawing up a plan to ensure “safe” living conditions for the population in the contaminated areas. However, detailed investigations on occasion reveal previously unidentified local areas of contamination. Three periods can be distinguished in the efforts to deal with the after-effects of the accident: The first period, from April to May 1986, involved making initial estimates of the scale of the disaster and the radiation situation, taking action to prevent a spontaneous chain reaction and radioactive emissions from the damaged reactor, identifying areas exposed to radioactive contamination, and evacuating the population and farm animals from a 30-kilometre zone. Vienna, IAEA, 1997, 501–506. The provinces subjected to radioactive contamination in the Russian Federation were Bryansk, Kaluga, Tula, Orel and to a lesser extent Kursk, Smolensk and Lipetsk; in the Ukrainian SSR – Zhitomir, Kiev, Rovno, Chernigov, Cherkassy and Vinnitsa; and in the Byelorussian SSR – Gomel, Mogilev, Brest, Minsk and Grodno. "Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident", which was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations, is being circulated at the request of the Resident Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic... Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100 These things, which are priceless, have not yet been properly studied and described. The IAEA secretariat supported this request and the project to carry out an expert appraisal with the participation of WHO, other internationa1 organizations and group of independent experts from a number of countries is now being implemented. It is found with the same or much greater frequency among children of other regions not affected by radioactive contamination, and not only in those with a shortage of naturally occurring iodine. In view of the importance for the international community of the experience gained by the Soviet Union in dealing with the consequences of the disaster, and also the importance for the Soviet Union of being able to draw on international experience, it seems desirable to establish comprehensive international programme of work in the following fields: Training and retraining medical specialists, primary haematologists, endocrinologists, oncologists, immunologists , epidemiologists, geneticists, psychologists, paediatricians, obstetricians and gynaecologists, health administrators and specialists in the field of human reproduction and family planning; Improving knowledge of radiation medicine and radiation security among medical workers and people living in contaminated areas. The accident disrupted the previous way of life and economic activity in various parts of the RSFSR, Ukrainian SSR and Byelorussian SSR. In the light of the new data on the state of health of the population living in contaminated areas and the need to improve their diet and calorie intake, their medical services and their material conditions, the main attention will be concentrated in the next few years on measures to improve health care and material conditions for these people. There are 2,224 settlements in the contaminated areas of the RSFSR, Ukrainian SSR and Byelorussian SSR. provides a comprehensive assessment of the Chernobyl accident and its long-term consequences The first stage of work, being undertaken in 1990, involves an investigation of radiation conditions (estimate of the strength of the gamma-ray dose) by means of a house-to-house survey of settlements in Kiev, Zhitomir and parts of Rovno and Chernigov provinces in the Ukrainian SSR, Gomel and Mogilev provinces in the Byelorussian SSR, and Bryansk province in the RSFSR, and also by means of wide-scale collection and analysis of soil samples to test for caesium-137, strontium-90 and plutonium-239 and 240 in these provinces. provides a comprehensive assessment of the Chernobyl accident and its long-term consequences During these years there have been many different opinions about the extent of (radionuclide) … Indirect losses, however, represent an incomparably larger amount. The accident’s consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, since other European countries were also af fected as a result of the atmo spheric transfer of radioactive material. Source: International Atomic Energy Agency, Information Circular, INFCIRC/383, 24 July 1990. According to available data, the average individual doses of radiation received by the population in contaminated areas over the period 1986-1989 were 6 rem in the RSFSR and 5.6 rem in the Ukrainian and Byelorussian SSRs. The Chernobyl accident led to many political consequences along with the health and environmental issues. The boundaries of the contaminated areas have remained virtually unchanged since radiation monitoring began in 1986. In the area affected (including the evacuation zone), 76,100 km2 were contaminated with caesium-137 at a level of between 1 and 5 Ci/km2. Children in this category require constant medical monitoring with highly sensitive ultra-sound equipment. On the basis of an analysis of research both in the USSR and abroad to estimate the biological effects of ionizing radiation over various dose ranges, a dose of 35 rem was recommended as the maximum over a 70-year life span. Acute problems are arising in finding work for different groups of the population, providing for their social and psychological rehabilitation and organizing teaching in schools. Large areas of the three countries were contaminated with radioactive materials, and radionuclides from the Chernobyl release were measurable in all countries of the northern hemisphere. The work programme for the coming period based on the main lines of research, including: To make this research more effective it will be necessary to re-equip most scientific organizations with modern equipment and computers, some of which will have to be imported. 3 reactors, measures to protect water resources from radioactivity, decontamination of settlements, scientific investigations and special measures on agricultural land. Assistance will also be required from the international organizations to carry out expert appraisals of the radiation situation using modern highly-sensitive radiation monitoring facilities, including mobile equipment. This work is expected to be completed in October 1990. Determination of the long-term limit for exposure to radiation led to further evacuations from areas contaminated by radionuclides beginning in 1989. The total population of 824,000 living in these areas can be broken down as follows: Note: The nominator shows the number of settlements; the denominator gives their population. In areas where restrictions have been introduced on the consumption of food products from local farms or private plots, the Union Republics estimate that they will have to evacuate a further 146,000 people (families with children up to the age of 14 and pregnant women), including 69,000 from the RSFSR, 21,000 from the Ukrainian SSR and 56,000 from the Byelorussian SSR. It is thus a societal problem and the management strategy after a nuclear accident needs to take account of social, ethical, and economic consequences along with the radiation impact. Ladies and Gentlemen, Thirty-one years ago, on 26 April 1986, an explosion at the Chernobyl … The following report was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Notwithstanding the enormous efforts – unprecedented anywhere else in the world – to deal with the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and despite the considerable financial, material and technical resources committed, a reliable system for ensuring the safety of people affected by radiation is still not in place. In assessing the main demographic indicators (birth rate, mortality, natural growth rate) for the population in the monitored areas of the RSFSR, Ukrainian SSR and Byelorussian SSR, it must be noted that while they are for the most part comparable to those for the country as a whole, and although specially conducted surveys have not revealed specifically radiation-related changes in the state of health of children or adults, the natural growth rate of the population in the Byelorussian SSR, for example, fell from 7.4 per 1,000 in 1986 to 5.1 per 1,000 in 1989. Soil contamination with plutonium-239 and 240 outside the evacuation zone is relatively low, mostly no greater than 0.1 Ci/km2. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of … A corresponding programme for 1990-1995 has been adopted in the RSFSR. Especially plant personnel, firefighters, rescue forces and clean-up workers (so-called liquidators) received high radiation doses. As a result of the accident or of their work in dealing with its immediate consequences, 30 people were killed or died from acute radiation sickness and many received high doses of radiation. Some of these hastened the end of the U.S.S.R. Monitoring of the level of contamination of environmental features with radionuclides and study of the processes of migration of fission products and trans-uranic elements (monitoring and forecasting of radioactive contamination). They include problems connected withpost-disaster reconstruction, radiation safety, development of new means ofmonitoring decontamination of land and facilities, and radionuclidemigration. The most widespread source of contamination giving a high background level of radiation is radionuclides of caesium-137. and 28,100 km2 at a level of above 5 Ci/km2. The Soviet Government accordingly has decided to give priority to moving inhabitants out of settlements where the dose limit cannot be complied with. Through the investigation of the consequences of the accident, we became confident that the real scale of the Chernobyl accident can not be measured by the amount of radioactivity or radiation. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and the Council of Ministers of the Byelorussian SSR made a similar appeal on 20 February 1990. At the proposal of the Soviet Union, the Chernobyl International Scientific Centre is being set up near the Chernobyl power station under the auspices of IAEA.

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