kilimanjaro is which type of volcano

Massive Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, consists of three large stratovolcanoes constructed along a NW-SE trend. Mount Kilimanjaro is located in Tanzania. Kilimanjaro is a large stratovolcano composed of three distinct volcanic cones: Kibo, the highest; Mawenzi at 5,149 metres (16,893 ft); and Shira, the lowest at 4,005 metres (13,140 ft). [90] The improper disposal of human waste on the mountain environment has created a health hazard, necessitating the boiling of all water. Kilimanjaro has daily upslope and nightly downslope winds, a regimen stronger on the southern than the northern side of the mountain. Kilimanjaro is the largest of an E-W belt of about 20 volcanoes near the southern end of the East African Rift Valley. Kilimanjaro, volcanic massif in northeastern Tanzania, near the Kenya border. KILIMANJARO NATIONAL PARK TANZANIA At 5,963 meters Kilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa. While Abbott turned back earlier, Ehlers at first claimed to have reached the summit rim, but after severe criticism of the claim, withdrew it. Mount Kilimanjaro is considered a stratovolcano, but what exactly does that mean? It is part of Kilimanjaro National Park and is a major climbing destination. Volcano Mountains vary from an active volcano, a dormant volcano to an extinct volcano, whereby only actively erupting volcano is Oldonyo Lengai. [11] They are separated by the Saddle Plateau at 4,400 metres (14,400 ft) elevation. Kilimanjaro is a triple volcano with the youngest and central peak of Kibo being 7.5-8.7 miles (12-14 km) from Shira to the west and Mawenza to the east. It is the highest mountain in Africa and the highest single free-standing mountain in the world: 5,895 metres (19,341 ft) above sea level and about 4,900 metres (16,100 ft) above its plateau base. Mile-deep gullies with 30-45 degree gradients make many places practically inaccessible. ), so once again- as in Cascade stratovolcanoes - a basaltic shield is the most important, but least conspicuous element of a chemically complex volcano. [63], The oldest person to climb Mount Kilimanjaro is Anne Lorimor, who reached Uhuru Peak 3.14 p.m. local time on 18 July 2019 aged 89 years and 37 days. Sources of information:Richard, J.J., Neumann van Padang M., 1957, Africa and the Red Sea. Reaching a height of 19,340 feet (5,895 m), it is one of the largest stratovolcanoes in the world. Sign at Uhuru peak, indicating to trekkers that they have reached the top. [75]:258 The Tanzania National Parks Authority reported that the park recorded 57,456 tourists during the 2011–12 budget year, of whom 16,425 hiked the mountain; the park's General Management Plan specifies an annual capacity of 28,470. According to the Tanzania National Parks Authority, the first wedding performed on the mountain below the summit took place on 21 September 2014, when an American couple exchanged vows at Shira 2 Camp. [40]:82 After descending to the saddle between Kibo and Mawenzi, Meyer and Purtscheller attempted to climb the more technically challenging Mawenzi but could only reach the top of Klute Peak, a subsidiary peak, before retreating due to illness. At the top of Kibo's summit is a 1 1/2 mile (2 1/4 Km) wide crater. [15]:3–4, Kilimanjaro has two distinct rainy seasons, one from March to May and another around November. This volcano's highest and youngest cone is named Kibo. Kilimanjaro is the fourth most topographically prominent peak on Earth. [65] Maxwell J. Ojerholm of Massachusetts, USA reached Uhuru Peak, the true summit, unassisted at the age of ten years old on July 4, 2009 taking the difficult Machame Route. Stratovolcano 5895 m (19,340 ft) Tanzania, -3.07°S / 37.36°E. Sailors' reports recorded by Ptolemy mention a "moon mountain" and a spring lake of the Nile, which may indicate Kilimanjaro; although available historical information does not allow differentiation among others in East Africa like Mount Kenya, the mountains of Ethiopia, the Virunga Mountains, the Rwenzori Mountains, and Kilimanjaro. [41] Lauwo claimed that he had climbed the mountain three times before the beginning of World War I. Situated near the fault-line of two tectonic plates, Kilimanjaro began to build itself up around 750,000 years ago, via thousands of years of lava explosions from the volcanic cones of Shira, … [65], In 2020, a team featuring two double above-knee amputees, Hari Budha Magar and Justin Oliver Davis, summited Kilimanjaro. [89], Falls on steep portions of the mountain and rock slides have killed trekkers. [74]:287–291[75]:259[77], There are seven official trekking routes by which to ascend and descend Kilimanjaro: Lemosho, Lemosho Western-Breach, Machame, Marangu, Mweka, Rongai, Shira, and Umbwe. Despite the myth and the fact that freestanding mountains are typically created as a result of volcanic activity, Mount Kilimanjaro is not active. mi. During nights of extreme radiational cooling, the NIF can cool to as low as −15 to −27 °C (5 to −17 °F). Kilimanjaro has three volcanic cones, Mawenzi, Shira and Kibo. [24], Johann Ludwig Krapf wrote in 1860 that Swahilis along the coast called the mountain Kilimanjaro. In contrast, Mawenzi's summit is a steep rocky peak surrounded by cliffs 1,600 ft.(0.5 km) to 4,900 ft.(1.5 km) high. The problem with this assumption is that kilima actually means hill and is, therefore, the diminutive of mlima, the proper Kiswahili word for mountain.  location: Tanzania, Africa Elevation: 5,895 Meters Type of volcano: Stratovolcano Eruption style: explosive Recent Eruptions: Geologists have found out that Mount Kilimanjaro's last eruption happened 360,000 years ago, but the volcano did show some activity around 200 years ago.Mount Kilimanjaro is known as a dormant volcano(has not erupted in a very long time … A stratovolcano, also called a composite volcano, is a type of volcano that has andesite and dacite forms of lava, which tend to be thicker types of lava and cause pressure to build … miles. Many people have been told that Kilimanjaro is a volcano, but that is not strictly true – it’s actually three volcanoes. [78] The Machame route can be completed in six or seven days,[79] Lemosho in six to eight, and the Northern Circuit routes in seven or more days. [93], Mountain massif in Kilimanjaro National Park in Tanzania, "Kilimanjaro" redirects here. Swiss Sets New Kilimanjaro Fastest Ascent And Descent Record, https://www.southasiatime.com/2020/01/11/two-double-amputees-hari-and-justin-successfully-climb-mt-kilimanjaro/, "The official site of the Tanzania National Parks – Latest news", "Mt. However, "[i]t is ... possible ... that an early European visitor, whose knowledge of [Kiswahili] was not extensive, changed mlima to kilima by analogy with the two Wachagga names: Kibo and Kimawenzi. Kilimanjaro Volcano Photos. The Rongai is the easiest of the camping routes. Fourteen died from advanced high altitude illness, including one with HACE, five with HAPE, and six with both HACE and HAPE. [40]:82 Three days later, they reached the highest summit, on the southern rim of the crater. [40]:82 Meyer and Purtscheller pushed to near the crater rim on 3 October but turned back exhausted from hacking footsteps in the icy slope. [73], Kilimanjaro National Park generated US$51 million in revenue in 2013,[74]:285 the second-most of any Tanzanian national park. The largest of these sits on top of the Great Barranco gorge. Seventeen were female and eight were male, ranging in age from 29 to 74. [23] The 1907 edition of The Nuttall Encyclopædia also records the name of the mountain as Kilima-Njaro. Kibo is the largest cone on the mountain and is more than 24 km (15 mi) wide at the Saddle Plateau altitude. [10], In contrast to the persistent slope glaciers, the glaciers on Kilimanjaro's crater plateau have appeared and disappeared repeatedly during the Holocene epoch, with each cycle lasting a few hundred years. [17][18] The Ash Pit, 350 metres (1,150 ft) deep, lies within the Reusch Crater. The free-standing mountain of Kilimanjaro is a giant edifice comprised of three discrete volcanoes. Kilimanjaro is a large stratovolcano composed of three distinct volcanic cones: Kibo, the highest; Mawenzi at 5,149 metres (16,893 ft);[9] and Shira, the lowest at 4,005 metres (13,140 ft). [51], The climate of Kilimanjaro is influenced by the height of the mountain, which allows the simultaneous influence of the equatorial trade winds and the high altitude anti-trades; and by the isolated position of the mountain. [91], According to the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in Moshi, 25 people died from January 1996 to October 2003 while climbing the mountain. All Saddle Plateau cones predate the last glaciation. [12] The height has since been measured as 5,892 metres (19,331 ft) in 1999, 5,902 metres (19,364 ft) in 2008, and 5,899 metres (19,354 ft) in 2014. The overall mortality rate was an 13.6 per 100,000 climbers. [49] Specific species associated with the mountain include the Kilimanjaro shrew[50] and the chameleon Kinyongia tavetana. It is also known as a composite volcano comprising numerous layers of … Bushland / Lower Slope:, 800 m – 1,800 m (2,600 ft – 5,900 ft); Rainforest Zone: 1,800 m – 2,800 m (5,900 ft – 9,200 ft); Heather / Moorland: 2,800 m – 4,000 m (9,200 ft – 13,100 ft); Alpine Desert Zone: 4,000 m – 5,000 m (13,100 ft– 16,400 ft); Arctic Zone: 5,000 m – 5,895 m (16,400 ft – 19,300 ft). [6], Natural forests cover about 1,000 square kilometres (250,000 acres) on Kilimanjaro. [59]:1088 It appears that decreasing specific humidity instead of temperature changes has caused the shrinkage of the slope glaciers since the late 19th century. It is actually a stratovolcano that means it is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice, and volcanic ash. Immediately I understood how to interpret the marvelous tales Dr. Krapf and I had heard at the coast, of a vast mountain of gold and silver in the far interior, the approach to which was guarded by evil spirits. The mountain is encircled by mountain forest. [62] The glaciers are thinning in addition to losing areal coverage,[58] and do not have active accumulation zones; retreat occur on all glacier surfaces. [11][13][14] They reach as far as Lake Chala and Taveta in the southeast and the Lengurumani Plain in the northwest. [13], Eruptive activity at the Shira centre commenced about 2.5 million years ago, with the last important phase occurring about 1.9 million years ago, just before the northern part of the edifice collapsed. Kilimanjaro- Africa's largest volcano and among the largest on the Earth is indeed a beautiful and fascinating volcano of the world. [61]:425 Ice climber Will Gadd noticed differences between his 2014 and 2020 climbs. Two cones formed subsequently, the phonolitic one at the northwest end of the ridge and the doleritic Platzkegel in the caldera centre. Also prominent in this belt are Ngorongoro caldera - a superb wildlife refuge, Ol Donyo Lengi - a carbonitite volcano, and Meru. [20], An almost continuous layer of lava buries most older geological features, with the exception of exposed strata within the Great West Notch and the Kibo Barranco. Mount Kilimanjaro is a composite volcano that is comprised of layers of lava, tephra, and volcanic ash. Despite their mostly small size, lava from the cones has obscured large portions of the mountain. Mount Kilimanjaro is a dormant volcano in Tanzania. He named it Kaiser-Wilhelm-Spitze (Kaiser Wilhelm peak). Shira to the west and Mawenzi in the east are older cones that make up Kilimanjaro. + −. Mount Kilimanjaro lies on a tectonic line intersection about 80km east of East Africa’s tectonically active Rift Valley. Nighttime surface temperatures on the Northern Ice Field (NIF) fall on average to −9 °C (16 °F) with an average daytime high of −4 °C (25 °F). Kilimanjaro is a site for visitors who climb. [58] In 2013 it was estimated that, at the current rate, most of the ice on Kilimanjaro will disappear by 2040 and "it is highly unlikely that any ice body will remain after 2060". They collectively cover an area of 6,000 km². [53] The glaciers survived a widespread drought during a three century period beginning around 4,000 years BP. [40]:84 On 18 October, they reascended Kibo to enter and study the crater, cresting the rim at Hans Meyers Notch. [21], The mountain is drained by a network of rivers and streams, especially on the wetter and more heavily eroded southern side and especially above 1,200 metres (3,900 ft). [21][34]:1–5[1]:114, The German missionaries Johannes Rebmann of Mombasa and Krapf were the first Europeans known to have attempted to reach the mountain. Elevation of 19,335.6 ft. ( 5,895 m ) forests and lower parts of the east and west Barrancos on southern. 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